Posted by: Indonesian Children | August 28, 2009




“A feeding problem can be defined as a deficit in any aspect of taking nutritional elements that result in undernutrition, poor growth, or stressful mealtimes for children and their caregivers” (Arvdson & Brodsky, 2002, pg. 570).

Feeding problems in young children appear to be common, although estimates of frequency have varied considerably in the literature. The lack of reliable, consistent diagnostic criteria continues to impede research-based progress in this area (Benoit D. Services and programs proven to be effective in managing young children’s (birth to age 5) eating behaviours and impact on their social and emotional development: Comments on Piazza and Carroll-Hernandez, Ramsay, and Black. In: Tremblay RE, Barr RG, Peters RdeV (eds.) Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development, 2004;1-4).

Estimates range from 12% to 35% of children as having reportable feeding problems (Kessler, J.W. 1966), (Manikam R & Perman JA. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 2000; 30(1): 34-46), (Palmer, S, & Horn, S. 1978, 107-129) with 1 to 2% of infants and young children having more severe, prolonged difficulty (Dahl, M. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavia, 1987; 76: 872-880). Data from Nova Scotia is in line with these estimates. In a normative sample designed to screen out children with major medical or developmental issues, 21% of parents reported four or more feeding behaviours as problematic for them (Crist, W, Napier-Phillips, A. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral pediatrics, 2001: 22(5): 279-286).

Children with neurological and developmental disabilities are especially prone to having feeding difficulties, with an estimated prevalence of 33% or more within that population (Schwarz SM.  Infants and Young Children. 2003; 16:317-330).

Questions about eating are among the most common concerns that parents raise with their pediatrician (Stickler, GB, Simmons, PS. Clinical Pediatrics, 1995;384-387). Thirty-seven percent of parents are worried about whether their child is eating right and 24% worry that their child does not eat enough.

Determining if a feeding problem exists is easier with physical evidence such as poor growth. Deciding that there is a feeding problem based on stressful mealtimes for children and their caregivers is a judgement call. Here are some things that you might consider in making this judgement. “Because of the wide variety of problems that can arise between parent and child over food, the following only provides common “red flags” and is not an exhaustive list.”

 Long mealtimes. Most family mealtimes last between 15-30 minutes. Mealtimes longer than 30 minutes often indicate feeding difficulties (Crist, W, Napier-Phillips, A. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral pediatrics. 2001; 22(5): 279-286), (Reau NR, Senturia YD, Lebailly SA, Christoffel KK. J Dev Behav Pediat 1996; 17:149-153).

Parents who report that they dread mealtimes. Mealtimes are important social times for families. When parents report that they dread mealtimes, significant difficulties usually exist.

Parents who are very worried that their child is not eating enough, despite evidence of good growth. Pay attention to any discrepancy between how worried a parent is about whether or not a child is getting enough to eat and the child’s actual growth pattern, particularly when such growth is quite good. In such a case, the parent’s worry often reflects significant battles over food.

Parents who report unusual strategies in trying to get their child to eat. Parents should not have to try to get their child to eat. Unusual strategies, such as leaving small bowls of food around the house or chasing their child around the house with a spoon, are good indicators of underlying feeding problems.

 Children who appear to be narrowing their diet over an extended period of time. It is common for toddlers to have food jags — times when they have a few favourite foods. However, these food jags are typically short (i.e. a couple of weeks). If a child’s narrow diet lasts longer than six months, it is probably worthwhile to ask more questions about the situation.


an·o·rex·i·a Pronunciation (n-rks)

n. 1. Loss of appetite, especially as a result of disease.

2. Anorexia nervosa.

[Greek anorexi : an-, without; see a-1 + orexis, appetite (from oregein, to reach out for; see reg- in Indo-European roots).]

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

anorexia or anorexia nervosa


a psychological disorder characterized by fear of becoming fat and refusal to eat [Greek an- without + orexis appetite]

anorexic adjn

Collins Essential English Dictionary 2nd Edition 2006 © HarperCollins Publishers 2004, 2006

anorexia Pronunciation (n-rks)

1. Loss of appetite, especially as a result of disease.

2. Anorexia nervosa.

The American Heritage® Science Dictionary Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

anorexia a complete lack of appetite. — anorectic, anorexic, adj.See also: Disease and Illness

lack of appetite, usually because of psychological reasons.See also: Food and Nutrition

dysphagia /dys·pha·gia/ (-fa´jah) difficulty in swallowing.

Dorland’s Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

dys·pha·gia (ds-fj) or dys·pha·gy (dsf-j)

n. Difficulty in swallowing or inability to swallow. Also called aglutition, aphagia, odynophagia.

dys·phagic (-fjk) adj.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.


Medical term for any difficulty, discomfort or pain when swallowing

Mentioned in: Achalasia, Esophageal Pouches, Lower Esophageal Ring, Myositis

Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Etymology: Gk, dys + phagein, to swallow
difficulty in swallowing, commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus. Patients with obstructive disorders such as esophageal tumor or lower esophageal ring are unable to swallow solids but can tolerate liquids. Persons with motor disorders, such as achalasia, are unable to swallow solids or liquids. Diagnosis of the underlying condition is made through barium studies, the observed clinical signs, and evaluation of the patient’s symptoms. See also achalasia, aphagia, corkscrew esophagus.
Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier.

dysphagia (dis·fāˑ·jē·), n inability to swallow. May be caused by physical obstruction or disease or psychological illness.

Jonas: Mosby’s Dictionary of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (c) 2005, Elsevier.

dysphagia (disfā´jē), n difficulty in swallowing. It may be caused by lesions in the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx; neuromuscular disturbances; or mechanical obstruction of the esophagus (e.g., dysphagia of Plummer-Vinson syndrome [sideropenic dysphagia], peritonsillar abscess, Ludwig’s angina, and carcinoma of the tongue, pharynx, larynx).

Mosby’s Dental Dictionary, 2nd edition. © 2008 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


difficulty in swallowing.

cricopharyngeal dysphagia see cricopharyngeal achalasia.
esophageal dysphagia difficulty in swallowing due to esophageal malfunction.
gastroesophageal dysphagia impaired passage of the bolus through the caudal esophageal sphincter.
neuropathic dysphagia may be caused by lesions of the glossopharyngeal or vagus nerves or associated nuclei of the caudal medulla oblongata.
oropharyngeal dysphagia abnormalities in mastication and pharyngeal contraction may be caused by hypoglossal nerve dysfunction, polyneuropathy, polymyositis, meningitis, brainstem lesions and generalized neuromuscular disease.
Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed. © 2007 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved


Internal medicine Difficulty or inability to swallow, a finding that may indicate a brainstem tumor. See Malignant dysphagia. Cf Deglutition.

McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Patient discussion about Feeding difficulties.

Q. mouth ulcer and difficulty to swallow, below right side of inner tongue guggle salt water and vinigar dose’nt help

A. how big is it? mouth ulcers has a reason why they happen. sometimes a broken tooth, biting a sharp metal, a prosthetic that doesn’t sit well..that sort of things. but sometimes it is caused by other stuff. any way, oral hygiene may relieve some of the symptoms. Topical (rubbed on) antihistamines, antacids, corticosteroids, or other soothing preparations may be recommended for applying on top of the ulcer. Avoid hot or spicy foods.


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